Brasileiros no exterior
Travessia clandestina de brasileiros na fronteira México-EUA
Problemas econômicos aumentam imigração de brasileiros nos EUA
Crescimento da imprensa voltada para imigrantes brasileiros nos EUA
Primeiro-Ministro promete "status especial" para imigrantes brasileiros em Portugal
Imigrantes ilegais brasileiras acusadas de prostituição em Portugal
The Arizona Daily Star (Tucson), August 1, 2002
Brazilian entrants more common
460 this year; 364 in all of '01
By Patty Machelor
ARIZONA DAILY STAR
Reynaldo Alves Sardinha's first journey outside of his country took him more than 5,000 miles north to the Arizona desert, where he nearly died.
Sardinha, from Goiás, Brazil, said he was hoping to reach San Francisco, where he'd heard construction work would be easy to find.
He is one of 460 Brazilians the U.S. Border Patrol in Southern Arizona has picked up through the first seven months of this year. Last calendar year, 364 Brazilians were caught. A total of 3,188 illegal entrants from Brazil were apprehended nationwide in fiscal 2001.
The increase in illegal entrants from Brazil may be related to locally based smugglers targeting the South American country, Border Patrol spokes-man Ryan Scudder said. He said it is not unusual for smugglers to seek out faraway places because there is more money to be made on longer journeys.
About 98 percent of the people who cross Arizona's international border are Mexican, Scudder said, with many others from El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Ecuador.
Sardinha, 33, told his story Wednesday through Border Patrol officer Eliezer Vazquez, who speaks Portuguese.
The Brazilian said he made the trip because he'd lost his $4-a-day job as a bus driver and couldn't find other employment. He was desperate to find work when he left his wife and two children in Brazil on July 22.
"If I had any other expense, such as health care . . . I would be left in debt,'' he said.
Sardinha says he made the trip alone until he joined a group of people preparing to cross at Mexico's border. He said he saved and borrowed for the $2,400 journey to reach a Mexican border city that has a name he can't remember.
"I was thinking about California, but I was just looking for the right place, whatever place I could get success,'' he said of his decision to cross despite the heat.
Within 10 hours of walking with the group, he said he began to fall behind. On Tuesday night, Border Patrol agents found him alone at Milepost 6 on Arizona 286, abandoned by a smuggler he'd paid $600 three days earlier.
Border Patrol spokesman Rob Daniels said it is common for smugglers to leave behind the slowest members of a group. "I don't know that we see a more pure form of desperation than we see in the faces and the stories of these migrants who continue to trek across the desert,'' he said.
Sardinha said he knows five other people in Goiás who would like to come to the United States, but said he would not recommend it. "If I had the chance to counsel somebody, I would tell them not to do it because it was very difficult staying three days and two nights without any food or water,'' he said.
At least 103 people have died while trying to cross the desert in Southern Arizona this year.
Sardinha was hospitalized overnight at Kino Community Hospital and will remain in Tucson until space becomes available in a Florence detention center. It will probably take a month or two before Sardinha sees an immigration judge, Scudder said.
Sardinha, who said he is nervous about being detained, wishes he could see a bit of the country first:
"If I can't stay to work, at least I want permission to know the country because if I get to know the country, at least I get something out of the trip.''
* Contact reporter Patty Machelor at 8077-789 orpmachelo@....
The San Diego Union-Tribune, August 5, 2002
Flow of Brazilians to U.S. a growing trend
Economic, political troubles cited in immigration increase
By Jerry Kammer
COPLEY NEWS SERVICE
WASHINGTON – Jose Ferreira Defreitas expected to be in Boston by now, after a long journey from Brazil that included sneaking across the U.S. border near San Diego and then traveling to Massachusetts, home to some 200,000 Brazilians.
But the smuggler who crammed Defreitas into a van with another Brazilian and 31 Mexicans, drove the wrong way on Interstate 8 and into a head-on collision. Six people died and dozens of others – including Defreitas – were injured.
The June 24 crash highlighted an immigration trend that has been quietly building for a generation: A growing number of Brazilians are moving to the United States, and those who can't get here legally are often willing to take the clandestine route across the U.S.-Mexico border.
The annual number of Brazilians detained by U.S. immigration agents jumped from 439 in 1997 to 3,485 in 2001, according to Immigration and Naturalization Service statistics.
Though the U.S. Brazilian population is relatively small – just 500,000 to 800,000 – experts say economic and political forces and expanding immigrant networks are likely to push that number higher.
"The Brazilian economy isn't in good shape; there's high unemployment, and too many jobs don't pay a decent salary," said University of Florida anthropologist Maxine Margolis. Her book on Brazilian immigrants in New York, "Invisible Minority," tells of their rapid but inconspicuous growth there.
"A very high percentage are undocumented, and the undocumented generally are not willing to stand up and be counted," Margolis said.
Another reason for their seeming invisibility, she said, is that Americans tend to know little of Brazil and lump in Brazilians with other immigrants from Latin America.
"They don't know if we're Hispanic or not," said Jaroslav Pribyl, editor of the Brazilian Pacific News, a monthly newspaper in Point Loma that serves San Diego's approximately 10,000 Brazilians. "We're Latin for sure, but we're not Hispanic. The difference is the language. We speak Portuguese."
Pribyl, 49, has been following the surge of Brazilians crossing the border illegally through San Diego – and watching as they move on to the East Coast, where they settle in cities with large Portuguese-speaking communities.
"Like many of the Mexicans who come here, they have nothing to lose," he said. "They're going to try any way they can to make their lives better, not knowing the dangers."
For Brazil, emigration is a recent phenomenon.
For most of the 20th century, Brazil welcomed immigrants from around the world. Blessed with natural resources, sensing that destiny called them to be the hemisphere's second superpower, the country industrialized and boomed. Even now, Brazilian airplanes – not coffee – are the principal export to the United States.
"Brazil is a fantastic country with tremendous potential that should be attracting people, not losing them," said professor Thomas Skidmore, a Brazil expert at Brown University.
But as the population ballooned from 17 million in 1900 to about 170 million today, that promise wilted, and some Brazilians began voting with their feet. They are leaving a country that is wracked by crime, one of the world's widest gaps between rich and poor, and political tensions that have made a leftist candidate the favorite in October's presidential election.
While some emigrants are seeking opportunity in neighboring Paraguay and others head to Europe, the largest group is pulled northward by the allure of the dollar and legendary stories of countrymen who have fled north for a new life.
"A lot of people come here thinking they will just stay for a while," said Rodrigo Merheb of the Brazilian Consulate in Chicago. "But then they start families and make connections and never go back."
That pattern – pragmatism prevailing over the yearning for home – is a classic story of immigration to the United States. So is Merheb's description of the networks that build gradually between communities in Brazil and communities in the United States.
"First one person comes, and then a brother; then a cousin comes and he brings a friend," he said.
At the urging of the United States, Mexican immigration officials have stepped up their efforts to intercept immigrants who come to Mexico in order to have access to the border.
Luis Terán, the top Mexican immigration official in the border state of Sonora, tells of detaining groups of Brazilians – a dozen or more at a time – as they prepare to make the jump into Arizona.
"If we can detect that they are preparing to cross, that means they have violated their permission" to come to Mexico as tourists, Terán said. "So that is a reason to detain them."
Change in tactics
Attempts to enter the United States through Mexico are on the rise because the preferred route – a plane ride to Boston, New York, Miami or Los Angeles – often isn't available.
A plane ride requires a visa, and U.S. Consulate officials have become reluctant to grant visas to those they suspect will disappear into the immigrant communities that have developed along the East Coast and in California from San Diego to San Francisco. Brazilian enclaves are sprouting in Houston and Chicago as well.
"Whenever people can't show some basic things – financial ties, property, strong ties that would probably compel them to return home after a visit – they aren't going to be likely to qualify for a visa," said State Dept. spokesman Ed Vasquez.
Consular officials are especially wary of Brazilians applying from the state of Minas Gerais, particularly the city of Governador Valadares, because so many residents have resettled illegally in the United States. So much of its economy has been built with dolares, or dollars, sent back from the United States that the city is widely known as Governador Valadolares.
Heavy flows of Brazilian immigrants began in the 1980s, as the country was hit by hyperinflation. In 1990, when the government froze bank accounts, disillusionment spread and word got out – particularly in the middle class – that Brazilians could blend comfortably into New England's large Portuguese-American communities.
A way out, up
Brazilians who feel economically trapped see the United States as a way out and up, said Brazilian economist Paulo Viera da Cunha, senior Latin American economist at Lehman Brothers in New York. "In the United States, they really can achieve the kind of upward mobility they want."
Paulo Almedia, a spokesman for the Brazilian Embassy in Washington, said many immigrants with an entrepreneurial bent have flourished.
"A lot of immigrants in New York started to work as shoe polishers," he said. "Then maybe they started a shop. Then some opened restaurants. Then you have a whole set of Brazilians working for other Brazilians."
Some of those entrepreneurs end up in San Diego, which has a Brazilian chamber of commerce and hosts many Brazilian events, including an annual Carnaval festival and most recently a World Cup celebration.
Most of San Diego's Brazilians moved from other parts of the United States, said Pribyl, the newspaper editor. His parents moved from Brazil to New Jersey when he was 16. He moved to San Diego with his wife six years ago.
"A lot of people from the East Coast are coming down to start businesses," he said. "But the main thing is the weather. Brazilian people are fond of good sunshine and good beaches."
Raquel De Suza, who with her husband owns the Grill from Ipanema restaurant in Washington, D.C., says many want to escape the crime and fear of Brazil's turbulent big cities.
"We have crime here, but it's not like in Brazil," she said. "Here you can see a beautiful house without a fence. In Brazil, if you build a big house, you need a big fence and big dogs to protect you."
Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva, who has carried the Workers Party banner to the front of Brazil's presidential race, has tapped into a deep well of discontent over the vast gap between rich and poor. The Brazilian currency, the real, has lost about a third of its value against the dollar since March, bringing more economic hardship to many.
Marcelo Gaspar, a young Brazilian bartender at Washington's La Vida Loca restaurant, says he has no doubt what will happen if the Brazilian economy continues to slide.
"You're going to see even more people coming up here," he said. "No doubt about it."
Staff writer Leonel Sanchez contributed to this story.
The MetroWest Daily (Mass.), August 5, 2002
Brazilian press links immigrants to homeland
By Liz Mineo
FRAMINGHAM - For Claudio Banho, who immigrated from Brazil two years ago and has yet to learn English, reading a Brazilian newspaper is a matter of survival.
"I'd feel lost," said Banho, who was reading the Brazilian Voice at Brazil Bakery on Concord Street on a recent afternoon. "I wouldn't know what's going on here or there. I'd feel alone, depressed, frustrated. It'd be so difficult that I'd have to go back to Brazil."
But Banho and several thousands of local Brazilian immigrants who call Framingham home don't suffer from lack of newspapers written in their native Portuguese.
Targeting the needs of the growing numbers of local immigrants hailing from Brazil, about a dozen Portuguese-language newspapers and three magazines circulate here bringing the news and a piece of home.
Brazilian newspapers, or jornais in Portuguese, are produced in Massachusetts, New Jersey and New York, states that have become magnets for Brazilian immigrants. Its presence here is part of the growth of the ethnic press, a phenomenon not-so-new in the nation.
"Historically, the ethnic press has played an important role in providing information on the countries people come from in greater detail than the mainstream press," said Sig Gissler, journalism professor at Columbia University.
But the ethnic press does more than bring the news.
"It provides psychological support to its communities," Gissler said. "It makes people feel connected, it gives them a sense of place and it helps create a sense of community. It provides a haven in a sometimes heartless world."
Brazilian publishers agree.
Newspapers and magazines represent a vital link between the world and recent immigrants who don't speak English. Often those newspapers become the only source of information for immigrants.
"They get the news from us," said Silvio de Souza, director of Brazilian Press based in Newark, N.J.
"Ninety-nine percent of Brazilian immigrants read Brazilian newspapers."
There are several reasons for that, said Wanderly Resende, founder and director of "Metropolitan Brazilian News" based in Peabody.
"Ninety percent of Brazilian immigrants don't speak English," said Resende. "They don't have access to the Internet. They like to read the paper and find out what's going on in their local communities and Brazil."
Cristina Paiva knows that feeling.
"When we came here we had nothing to read," said Paiva, finance director of Brazilian Times, based in Somerville. "There wasn't a Brazilian newspaper. We had to go to New York to read Brazilian newspapers."
Paiva's husband founded the Times in 1988. With a circulation of 25,000, it is among the largest Brazilian newspapers in the nation. Brazilian Press is at the top with a circulation of 45,000. Brazilian Voice has the second largest circulation with 36,000. Most papers are distributed in several states including California, Pennsylvania and Florida.
Most of the newspapers are free and distributed in stores Brazilians patronize. Reflecting the importance of religion in Brazilian culture, there are three religious newspapers, one Catholic and two evangelical.
The newspapers bring news about Brazilian communities in other states. Their pages are filled with ads featuring Brazilian businesses such as restaurants, hair salons and clothing stores. Other popular ads highlight immigration lawyers, real state agents, car sales and English classes.
The social pages featuring weddings, births, anniversaries are among the most popular sections in the newspapers. Campaigns to help Brazilians sick with cancer or in need of organ donors receive wide coverage as well as police stories in which those arrested hail from Brazil.
The community has its own version of Sports Illustrated: Jornal dos Sports.
Brazilian newspapers are read not only by Brazilians.
The 11 percent of Framingham Hispanic residents don't have a readily available Spanish-language newspaper in town, but that doesn't discourage Honduran Jose Almendares. On a recent afternoon at Brazil Bakery, Almendares was reading Brazilian Press.
"This is the closest we can get to a Spanish newspaper," said Almendares.
Brazilian newspapers bring news about Brazil and Latin America, but their hottest subject is immigration and any changes in the laws affecting it.
That's the main reason why Alfonso Paulino, a Brazilian immigrant living in Ashland, reads the paper.
"I want to know the news about immigration," said Paulino. "For immigrants, that's the most important news."
O Globo, 7/8/02:
‘Status especial para brasileiros’
José Manuel Durão Barroso fez na semana passada sua primeira visita como primeiro-ministro de Portugal ao Brasil, país com o qual tem fortes relações pessoais. Depois de participar da reunião da Comunidade dos Países de Língua Portuguesa em Brasília, ele teve um almoço sexta-feira com empresários brasileiros no consulado português. O premier conversou com O GLOBO após o almoço e afirmou que os brasileiros terão direitos garantidos na nova lei de imigração portuguesa.
Quais foram os fatos marcantes do encontro da comunidade dos países de língua portuguesa?
JOSÉ MANUEL DURÃO BARROSO: Houve dois fatos importantes. A adesão de Timor, o primeiro país independente do século XXI, que é um país que escolheu ter o português como idioma oficial, e também a paz em Angola.
A que o senhor credita a virada à direita da Europa?
DURÃO BARROSO: Hoje em dia a maioria dos governos é de centro-direita. Penso que podem ter havido coincidências no ciclo político. Mas também talvez haja uma dificuldade dos socialistas em lidar com as regras de maior exigência da zona do euro. Mas não basta entender a política em termos de esquerda e direita. É preciso ver também em termos de passado e futuro. Há modernizadores na esquerda e na direita.
Houve um grande crescimento da extrema-direita na Europa. Por que?
DURÃO BARROSO: Em Portugal não considero que haja extrema-direita. Mas em outros países vimos movimentos populistas de direita que são de fato uma ameaça aos valores de tolerância. Mas acho que esse populismo não é bem de direita nem de esquerda. É uma tendência de explicar as coisas políticas em termos simplistas. Os moderados têm que ter respostas para estes problemas, evitando que sejam os demagogos extremistas a tomar conta deles e usá-los contra a democracia.
Como Portugal está lidando com o problema da imigração, um dos assuntos mais caros aos extremistas?
DURÃO BARROSO: Tenho usado a expressão "portas abertas sim, mas não escancaradas". Temos que gerir os fluxos migratórios combatendo a imigração clandestina mas não combatendo aquilo que é normal, a migração. No caso português: temos dez milhões de pessoas num território relativamente pequeno. É demagogia dizer que podemos aceitar todos que queiram ir para lá. E não quero ver os estrangeiros que chegam nas lixeiras à procura de restos. Por isso queremos como condição que eles tenham a garantia de um emprego. Tudo isso tem que ser aplicado com critério na lei de imigração.
Os lusófonos, e, mais especificamente, os brasileiros terão um status especial?
DURÃO BARROSO: Há um estatuto especial para os brasileiros em Portugal, até de igualdade de direitos civis e políticos. E queremos manter isso. Estão previstas exceções para lusófonos na nova lei, que está sendo elaborada.
Seus avós eram de correntes politicas contrárias. Isso pode tê-lo ajudado a ter a postura que o senhor chama de moderada?
DURÃO BARROSO: Um dos meus avós era monarquista e veio para cá, e meu pai nasceu aqui por causa disso. Meu avô reagiu mal à República lá. O outro avô era de origem humilde, ligado a movimentos de contestação ao regime. Para mim, foi uma escola política importante. Ver uma parte da família a falar mal da outra. Uns diziam: "esses reacionários". Outros: "esses revolucionários". Agora, já estou numa posição mais madura. Penso que há coisas boas na esquerda e na direita, mas temos que agir com moderação.
O Público (Lisboa), 2/8/02:
Operação do SEF em Bar de Lisboa Identifica Seis Ilegais
Uma operação de fiscalização numa casa de divertimento nocturno, em Lisboa, levada a cabo pelo Serviço de Estrangeiros e Fronteiras (SEF) e pela Inspecção Geral do Trabalho, na madrugada de ontem resultou na condução às instalações do SEF de 43 cidadãs estrangeiras (39 brasileiras, duas moçambicanas, uma angolana, uma colombiana) para efeitos de identificação e para se aferir a legalidade da sua permanência no país, apurando-se que, dessas, seis estavam em situação ilegal.
Uma cidadã ficou detida por possuir documentos falsificados, e 25 não reuniam condições para poderem exercer qualquer actividade laboral, pelo que irão ser aplicadas coimas à empresa que explora o estabelecimento.
Esta acção, segundo uma nota do SEF, segue-se a "muitas outras acções" em estabelecimentos da mesma natureza destinadas a combater a imigração ilegal associada a cidadãs estrangeiras envolvidas na prostituição, bem como os crimes de auxílio à imigração ilegal e de angariação de mão de obra ilegal e lenocídio.
Em 2002, o SEF efectuou seis acções de fiscalização a bares de alterne, na área da Direcção Regional de Lisboa, Vale do Tejo e Alentejo. Nos 17 bares fiscalizados, foram identificadas 289 cidadãs estrangeiras, tendo-se verificado que 50, sobretudo brasileiras, estavam em situação de ilegalidade. Destas, 39 foram detidas, aguardando julgamento, e 11 foram notificadas para abandonar o país dentro de 20 dias. Onze proprietários dos 17 bares fiscalizados terão que pagar coimas, por empregarem estrangeiras não habilitados com autorização de permanência, visto de trabalho ou autorização de residência.